Psilomelane crown of silver stone meaning and properties.
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Psilomelane is a group name for hard black manganese oxides including hollandite and romanechite. Psilomelane consists of hydrous manganese oxide with variable amounts of barium and potassium. The stone is erroneously, and uncommonly, known as black hematite, despite not being related to true hematite, which is an iron oxide.
Generalized formula may be represented as Ba(Mn2+)(Mn4+)8O16(OH)4 or as (Ba,H2O)2Mn5O10. It is sometimes considered to be a hydrous manganese manganate, but of doubtful composition. The amount of manganese present corresponds to 70-80% of manganous oxide with 10-15% of available oxygen.
Crown of silver psilomelane
Also named “crown of silver” is amorphous and occurs as botryoidal and stalactitic masses with a smooth shining surface and submetallic lustre. The mineral is readily distinguished from other hydrous manganese oxides (manganite and wad) by its greater hardness 5 to 6, the specific gravity varies from 3.7 to 4.7.
The streak is brownish black and the fracture smooth. Owing to its amorphous nature, the mineral often contains admixed impurities, such as iron hydroxides. It is soluble in hydrochloric acid with evolution of chlorine gas.
Sample from Mexico
History and occurrence
The name has reference to this characteristic appearance, from the Greek for (naked, smooth) and (black), a Latinized form is calvonigrite.
It is a common and important ore of manganese, occurring under the same conditions and having the same commercial applications as pyrolusite.
It is found at many localities, amongst those which have yielded typical botryoidal specimens may be mentioned the Restormel iron mine at Lostwithiel in Cornwall, Brendon Hills in Somerset, Hoy in Orkney, Sayn near Coblenz, and Crimora in Augusta county, Virginia. With pyrolusite it is extensively mined in Vermont, Virginia, Arkansas, and Nova Scotia.
- Category: Oxide minerals
- Formula: Ba(Mn2+)(Mn4+)8O16(OH)4 or as (Ba,H2O)2Mn5O10
Barium Manganese Oxide Hydroxide
- Crystal system: Monoclinic
- Color: black with gray pyrolusite bands
- Crystal habit: Botryoidal, Mammillary, Reniform
- Cleavage: none
- Fracture: conchoidal and uneven
- Mohs scale hardness: 5.0 – 6.0
- Luster: Sub-Metallic, Dull
- Streak: brownish black
- Diaphaneity: Opaque
- Specific gravity: 3.7 – 4.7
- Polish luster: vitreous to subadamantine
Psilomelane under microscope
Psilomelane meaning and healing properties benefits
The following section is pseudo scientific and based on cultural beliefs.
A stone considered excellent for gazing and scrying. It is used for many other kinds of trances. It can be used in emotional crystal healing to recognize patterns and uncover hidden motivations. This can help you to correct emotions and behaviors that are unloving or not useful to your life.
What is psilomelane used for?
Psilomelane is a stone that is considered excellent for gazing and scrying. It is used for many other kinds of trances. It can be used in emotional crystal healing to recognize patterns and uncover hidden motivations. This can help you to correct emotions and behaviors that are unloving or not useful to your life.
Where is psilomelane found?
The stone is more abundant in the surficial ores of the de- posits ; with increasing depth the softer oxides, pyrolusite and man- ganite, become increasingly abundant. It has been found, however, to depths of 70 feet in the Black Jack mine and of 40 feet in the deepest workings of the Tolbard mine.
How is psilomelane stone formed?
The gem forms as a weathering product of other manganese minerals, as concretions or dendrites deposited by ground water or as nodules precipitated from lake water. It is associated and intergrown with iron oxides such as hematite and goethite and other manganese oxides such as pyrolusite.
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